Makalelerim

1 Investigating Attitudes toward Instructional Principles and Methods Course of Pedagogical Formation Students: Inonu University Case*

Journal of Education and Future

year: 2016, issue: 9, 123-137

Investigating Attitudes toward Instructional Principles and Methods Course of Pedagogical Formation Students: Inonu University Case*

İsmail Şan**

Abstract

The purpose of this study is investigating the attitudes toward Teaching Principles and Methods course of pedagogical formation students at Inonu University. For this purpose, data was collected via “Attitude Scale for Teaching Principles and Methods Course” (MEB, 2012) from 368 students that are voluntary for applying to this research, in the 2014-2015 spring semester. At the last week of the semester, before the final examinations the attitude scale was applied to the students. The scale is composed of 21 statements that are from affective domain. The survey method was used in this paper. To set light to the attitude level of students, the single survey design was used. On the other side between-subjects survey method also preferred to investigate the variables that change students’ attitude levels. Independent samples t-test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Man-Whitney U were used to determine differences; and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was calculated to determine associations. According to the results gender, previous faculty, ALES score preference and grade level change the attitude toward IPM course. But marital status doesn’t change it. This result was concluded in the light of the background of literature. In the light of that conclusion, this study is seen to be in conflict with some previous studies respect for attitude levels of students, gender, previous faculty, ALES score preferences, and attitude-success correlation.

Keywords: pedagogical formation, instructional principles and methods course, attitude

* A preliminary version of the paper has been presented at ICCI-2015.

** Assist. Prof. Dr., Inonu University, Faculty of Education, Malatya, Turkey. E-mail: ismail.san@inonu.edu.tr

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Pedagojik Formasyon Öğrencilerinin Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri Dersine Yönelik Tutumlarının İncelenmesi

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi bünyesinde sürdürülen pedagojik formasyon eğitimi öğrencilerinin Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri dersine yönelik tutumlarının belirlenmesidir. Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri dersi, içeriği gereği önemli olmakla birlikte diğer fakülte öğrencileri tarafından içselleştirilmesinin zor olması ve genellikle başarının düşük olması nedeniyle tercih edilmiş olup, süreçte öğrencilerin tutumunun önemli olduğu varsayılarak incelenmesi gerektiği düşünülmüştür. 2014-2015 Bahar döneminde, çalışmaya katılmaya gönüllü olan 368 öğrenciye, derse yönelik tutumlarını belirlemek adına MEB (2012: 246)’de yer alan Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri Dersine Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Beşli likert tipte cevaplanan ölçek tek boyutlu olarak kullanılmıştır. Ölçekten alınan puanlar, Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri dersine yönelik tutum düzeyi olarak kabul edilmiştir. Ölçek maddelerine verilen yanıtların cinsiyet, medeni durum, ALES puanı tercihi, sınıf düzeyi ve fakülte değişkenlerine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığının belirlenmesi için bağımsız örneklemler t-testi, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H testleri; vize ve final puanlarıyla ilişkisinin incelenmesi için ise Spearman sıralar korelasyonu katsayısı hesaplanmıştır. Ölçekten alınan puanlar, ÖİY dersine yönelik tutumun orta düzeyde olduğunu göstermektedir. Elde edilen bulgular cinsiyet, fakülte ve sınıf değişkenlerine göre ÖİY dersine yönelik tutumun farklılaştığını ve tutum puanları ile ÖİY dersi vize notu arasında orta düzeyde negatif yönlü anlamlı bir korelasyon olduğunu göstermiştir. Sonuçlara dayalı olarak tartışmalar yapılmış olup, çalışmanın önceki bazı çalışmalarla tutum düzeyi, cinsiyet, ALES puanı tercihi ve tutum-başarı ilişkisi açılarından uyumsuzluklar içerdiği ifade edilebilir.

Anahtar Sözcükler: pedagojik formasyon, öğretim ilke ve yöntemleri dersi, tutum

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Introduction

Curricula must be evaluated due to the continuous nature of curriculum development process. Stakeholders’ views hold an important place on that evaluation. There are a lot of researches about student teachers’ views on teaching courses. On the other hand, there is not any research on attitudes toward Teaching Principles and Methods course of pedagogical formation students. Researches on the relation between attitude and academic success show that more positive attitude means more academic success. Also, students adopt courses more in the case of their ideas are taken into account.

The purpose of this study is investigating the attitudes toward Teaching Principles and Methods course of pedagogical formation students at Inonu University. For this purpose, data was collected via “Attitude Scale for Teaching Principles and Methods Course” (MEB, 2012, p. 246) from 368 students that are voluntary for applying to this research.

The survey method was used in this paper. To set light to the attitude level of students, the single survey design was used. On the other side to investigate the variables that differentiate students’ attitudes the between-subjects survey method also preferred.

“Attitude Scale” MEB (2012: 246) was used to collect data. This is a five-point Likert-type and homogeneous scale. T-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis were used to determine differences; and Pearson’s Correlation coefficient was calculated to determine associations.

Data shows attitude level differs according to gender, age, faculty, and department and grade variables. Also, it has a negative medium correlation with TPM course’s midterm exam mark.

Some courses of education faculty are taught to the successful students that apply from the other faculties to get “teaching certificate”, in Turkey. The Ministry of National Education (MEB), Council of Higher Education (YOK) and universities decide to these courses incompatible with teacher proficiencies (YOK, 2010). This certificate program is called as “Pedagogical Formation (PF)”. PF students (PFSs) mostly strain to get accustomed to new teaching and learning literature because of their prior learning activities. A new faculty, new lecturers, methods, approaches make familiarization period longer. Also, most of these students are mature and have more responsibilities -like children, work, and family- than a graduate student.

Instructional Principles and Methods (IPM) course is taught to PFS. IPM is one of the fundamental course for pre-service teacher education. The main goals of IPM course are about “how a teacher should act during teaching-learning process” and this makes IPM very important for all branches. In accordance with this importance, %20 of the teacher proficiencies that are tested in KPSS, which is the examination that a teacher candidate must pass, consist of the IPM course’s acquisitions (OSYM,

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2013). In 2004, all of the curricula in Turkey has started to be changed. After that change, teacher candidates are mostly expected to gain constructivist view for learning and indirect teaching principles and methods at pre-service education process. IPM course’s goals are revised on this context to underline constructivist approach and indirect methods. IPM course is given 2 hours a week for PFS during 14 weeks. In the fall semester, this course is held by the lecturers from educational science department and one midterm- one final examination are applied to test students’ acquisitions.

IPM is not only about cognitive features but also an affective domain. “To believe the importance of using indirect methods and constructivist approach at teaching and learning process” is one of the IPM course’s goals from the affective domain. This course should appeal to emotions associated with teaching. PFSs’ attitude toward IPM is expected to be an indicator for reaching the level at affective domain goals of IPM.

There are a lot of studies on teacher certificate program (Erden, 1995; Kartal, 2009; Sarı, 2010; Yüksel, 2004) and PFSs’ (Altınkurt, Yılmaz & Erol, 2014; Demircioğlu & Özdemir, 2014; Doğan & Kara, 2015; Eraslan & Çakıcı, 2011; İlğan, Sevinç & Arı, 2013; Kartal & Afacan, 2012; Kontaş & Demir, 2015; Kutluca, Birgin & Çatlıoğlu, 2007; Nayır & Taneri, 2013; Uslu, 2013) attitude toward teaching.

Kontaş & Demir (2015) argue that PF courses have an effect on PFS’ professional self-efficacy perceptions. Also, Kutluca, Birgin & Çatlıoğlu (2007) discussed that the course “planning and evaluation”, which is the past version of IPM, supported teacher candidates about individual, professional and social issues. Altınkurt, Yılmaz & Erol (2014); Gülşen & Seyratlı (2014); İlğan, Sevinç, & Arı (2013), Kartal & Afacan (2012) state that PFS’ attitude toward teaching is positive. And even, Bağçeci, et al. (2015) point out that PFS’ attitude toward teaching is higher than education faculty students. Doğan & Kara (2015) states that PFS’ attitude level is medium level. On the contrary Demircioğlu & Özdemir (2014) (%80,4); Gülşen & Seyratlı (2014) (%84,4-92,6); İlğan, Sevinç & Arı (2013) (%82,4) put forward that PFS attitude level is high.

Dündar & Karaca (2013) states that PFS are in fear from PF program. Doğan & Çoban (2009) point out that, pessimistic candidate teachers about to place a position in future are in anxiety and have negative feelings toward teaching profession.

Some studies (Eraslan & Çakıcı, 2011; Köksalan, İlter & Görmez, 2010; Süral, 2014) says that males’ attitude toward teaching profession is higher than males’. On the other side, some research results (Doğan & Çoban, 2009; Ekiz, 2006; Erdem & Anılan (2000); Gelişli, 2009; Kiraz, Demir, Aksu, Daloğlu & Yıldırım, 2010; Pehlivan, 2008) show that males choose to teach profession more than males. By the way, Başbay, Ünver & Bümen (2009); Bulut & Doğar (2006); Erden, (1995); Gürbüz & Kışoğlu, (2007); İlğan, Sevinç, & Arı (2013); Polat (2013), Sayın, (2005); Şimşek, (2005); Tanel, Kaya & Tanel, (2007); Tanrıöğen (1997); Yaşar-Ekici (2014); Yüksel,

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(2004) assert that gender doesn’t change attitude level of PFS.

Bağçeci, et al. (2015); Süral, (2015); Süral & Sarıtaş (2015) report that being verbal or numeric student doesn’t change the attitude toward teaching profession. But Demircioğlu & Özdemir (2014) and Terzi & Tezci (2007) say that verbal students’ attitude is higher than numeric students.

According to Yılmaz (2015), PF program doesn’t increase PFS’ attitude toward PF program and the teaching profession. Polat (2013) states that PFS’ attitude toward teaching profession is higher than Education faculty students’ (EFS). Also, PFS’ attitude level is 67,4 %. Özkan (2012) point out that PFS love teaching profession (87,5 %) and gender doesn’t change that feeling.

Başbay, Ünver & Bümen (2009); Demircioğlu & Özdemir (2014); Polat (2013) represent that the faculty is not a significant variable for PFS’ attitude. But Eraslan & Çakıcı (2011); Gelişli (2009); İlğan, Sevinç & Arı (2013); Kaya & Büyükkasap (2005); Saracaloğlu et al. (2004); and Tezcan & Afacan (2012) argue that faculty changes the attitude level.

Özder, Konedralı & Zeki (2010) states that there is no correlation between academic success and attitude toward teaching profession. On the contrary, Abbasoğlu & Öncü (2013) Çakır, Erkuş & Kılıç, (2004); Çakmak & Hevedanlı (2005); Çeliköz & Çetin (2004); Eraslan & Çakıcı (2011); Gülşen & Seyratlı (2014); Özkan (2012) found that there was positive correlation between academic success and attitude toward teaching profession.

It can be seen that none of the studies examines the PFS’ attitude toward IPM course. As it is defined, affective domain affects students’ cognition. In that context, investigating pedagogical formation students’ attitude toward IPM course is a gap in the field. This study aims to fill the gap.

Method

The purpose of this research was to explore the PFS’ attitude level toward IPM course and to investigate whether this level was varied due to gender, previous faculty, grade level, ALES score preference, and marital status. For this purpose “Attitude toward IPM course scale” (MEB, 2012) was used to obtain data from the sample. The scale is composed of 21 statements that are from the affective domain. PFS selected the appropriate degree for each statement anonymously and voluntarily in their classrooms during the last two weeks at spring semester of the 2014-2015 academic year, in Inonu University. This paper aims to discuss the certain results of the scale related to attitude toward IPM course. Quantitative data obtained was analyzed using the descriptive statistics and comparative analysis.

The population of the study covers 450 PFSs that enrolled to IPM course at spring semester of the 2014-2015 academic year, in Inonu University. Data was collected from 368 PFSs that are the volunteer for applying to this research. The

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sample size of this research is satisfying the requirements (Krejcie & Morgan, 1970) for that population. Sampling was non-probability, purposive (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2011) because the goal was to examine students involved in IPM course during that semester.

Among 368 sample size, there were 212 female, 116 numeric (153 of 368 had taken ALES exam), 352 single, 235 engineering and 304 senior grade PFS. Demographical variables frequencies and percentages are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Demographical Variables of Sample

n

%

n

%

ALES score preference

Previous Faculty

Numeric

116

31.5

Phys.Educ.(BESYO)

43

11.7

Verbal

28

7.6

Fine Arts

33

8.9

Equiponderant

8

2.2

Economics

13

3.6

Marital status

Science and Literature

36

9.8

Married

16

4.3

Engineering

235

64.1

Single

352

95.7

Gender

Grade level

Female

212

57.6

Senior grade

304

82.6

Male

156

42.4

Graduated

40

10.9

Parametric and non-parametric tests are used for analysis. Independent samples t-test was used for gender; Mann-Whitney U test for marital status, and grade level; Kruskal-Wallis for ALES score preference, previous faculty were used in this research to determine whether there was difference between groups, or not; and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences. All analyzes were performed by using SPSS 17 statistical software.

Findings and Interpretation

Analysis of the results obtained was held in two stages. The first stage used descriptive analysis to get the frequencies of the answers, and during the second stage, the differences in attitude toward IPM course between genders, ALES score preferences, marital status, age interval, previous faculty, and grade level was analyzed.

Items in the scale intend to measure PFS’ attitude toward IPM course. Some items (2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21) are negative attitude statements and these are converted before analyzing. Figure 3 shows frequencies of answers to questions.

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Table 2

Mean and std. Deviation for Scale Items

Item

Mean

Std. Dev.

1

IPM’s content is funny.

3.79

1.102

8

I like IPM course’s content.

3.63

1.159

11

I’m interested in IPM course.

3.41

1.110

7

IPM is useless for me.

3.27*

1.098

19

I am happy to be in IPM class.

3.25

1.150

9

Tıme passes quickly in IPM classes.

3.18

1.124

14

I like to study on IPM course more than the others

3.18

1.180

4

I like to discuss IPM topics.

3.05

1.138

20

The most unsympathetic course is IPM.

3.00*

1.044

3

It would be better if there weren’t IPM course.

2.98*

1.033

5

I wish to increase IPM classes’ hours.

2.94

1.252

15

IPM makes me uneasy.

2.89*

1.049

2

I have trouble in IPM classes.

2.88*

1.259

21

IPM topics are boring.

2.88*

1.140

16

I want to reserve more time to study on IPM.

2.73

1.037

13

I never get bored of IPM course.

2.64

0.988

6

I get bored while studying IPM.

2.63*

1.199

12

IPM is the most fearful course for me.

2.53*

1.248

17

IPM course scares me.

2.43*

1.258

18

IPM topics confuse me.

2.43*

1.206

10

I fear form IPM classes.

1.89*

1.417

General

2.93

1.152

*: reversed items

As shown in the Table 2 content is perceived funny, useful, not boring. On the other hand, PFS are in fear from IPM. The explanation of this results could be that students are aware of importance IPM in PF, and they also care for their school achievement.

To analyze differences in attitude between genders, independent samples t-test was used. Results showed that there is statistically significant difference between genders for Attitude toward IPM course. Results are presented in Table 3.

Table 3

t-Test for Gender

Gender

N

Mean

Std.Dev.

t

p

Male

156

2.77

.34

2.952

.003

Female

212

2.67

.28

Data are mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise stated. There were 156 male and 212 female participants. An independent-samples t-test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude toward IPM course between females and males. There were no outliers in the data, as assessed by inspection of a boxplot. Attitude scores for each level of gender were normally distributed, as assessed by

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Shapiro-Wilk’s test (p > .05), and there was not homogeneity of variances, as assessed by Levene’s test for equality of variances (p=.002). The IPM course was more affecting to male PFS (2.77±0.34) than female PFS (2.67±0.28), a statistically significant difference of 0.10 (95%CI, .166 to .033), t(295,319) = 2.952, p = .003).

To analyze differences in attitude between marital statuses, Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results are presented in Table 4.

Table 4

Mann-Whitney U Test for Marital Statuses

Marital Status

N

Mean Rank

Sum of Ranks

U

p

Single

352

184.14

64818

2690

.762

Married

16

192.38

3078

A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between single and married students. Distributions of the attitude scores for singles and marrieds were not similar, as assessed by visual inspection. Attitude scores for singles (mean rank = 184.14) and marrieds (mean rank= 192.38) were not statistically significantly different, U = 2690, z = -.303, p = .762.

To analyze differences in attitude between ALES score preferences Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results are presented in Table 5.

Table 5

Kruskal-Wallis Test for ALES Score Preferences

ALES Score Preference

N

Mean Rank

df

χ2

p

Difference

Verbal

28

109.07

2

27.674

.000

V>N

Numeric

116

72.22

V>E

Equiponderant

8

24.50

N>E

Total

152

A Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted to determine if there were differences in attitude score between groups that differed in their ALES score preferences: the "verbal" (n = 28), "numeric" (n = 116), and "equiponderate" (n = 8) ALES score preference groups. Distributions of attitude scores were not similar for all groups, as assessed by visual inspection of a boxplot. Attitude scores were statistically significantly different between the different preferences of ALES score group, χ2(2) = 27.674, p = .000.

A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between verbal and numeric students. Attitude scores for verbal students (mean rank = 109.07) were statistically significantly higher than for numeric students (mean rank = 72.22), U = 824, z = -4.045, p = .000.

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A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between verbal and equiponderate students. Attitude scores for verbal students (mean rank = 109.07) were statistically significantly higher than for equiponderate students (mean rank = 24.50), U = 0.000, z = -4.285, p = .000.

A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between numeric and equiponderate students. Attitude scores for numeric students (mean rank = 72.22) were statistically significantly higher than for equiponderate students (mean rank = 24.50), U = 160, z = -3.098, p = .002.

To analyze differences in attitude between faculties Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results are presented in Table 6.

Table 6

Kruskal-Wallis Test for ALES Score Preferences

ALES Score Preference

N

Mean Rank

df

χ2

p

Difference

1. CPES.*

44

182.44

4

41.273

.000

1-3

2. Fine Arts

32

269.44

2-1, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5

3. FEAS**

12

67.00

3-4, 3-5

4. FAS***

36

201.70

5. FE****

236

170.70

Total

360

* : College of Physical Education and Sports *** :Faculty of Arts and Sciences

** : Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences ****: Faculty of Engineering

A Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted to determine if there were differences in attitude score between groups that differed in their faculties: the "CPES" (n = 44), "Fine Arts" (n = 32), the “FEAS” (n=12), the “FAS” (n=36) and the "FE" (n = 236) faculty groups. Distributions of attitude scores were not similar for all groups, as assessed by visual inspection of a boxplot. Attitude scores were statistically significantly different between the different faculty group, χ2(4) = 41.273, p = .000.

Mann-Whitney U tests were run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between CPES and other faculties. According to these tests attitude scores for CPES students (mean rank = 32.32) were statistically significantly higher than for FEAS students (mean rank = 14.50), U = 96, z = -3.370, p = .001.

Mann-Whitney U tests were run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between Fine Arts and other faculties. According to these tests attitude scores for Fine Arts students were statistically significantly higher than for CPES [(mean ranks (48.19; 31.45), U = 394, z = -3.268, p = .001.9], FEAS [(mean ranks (27.81; 8.33), U = 22, z = -4.507, p = .000], FAS [(mean ranks(42.50; 27.39), U = 320, z = -3.154, p = .0029], and FE [(mean ranks(200.44; 125.56), U = 1666, z = -5.135, p = .000] students.

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A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between FAS and other faculties. Tests show that attitude scores for FAS (mean rank = 11.83) were statistically significantly higher than for FEAS students (mean rank = 51.83), U = 544, z = -5.135, p = .000.

A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between FE and other faculties. The results of these test show that attitude scores for FE (mean rank = 128.19) were statistically significantly higher than for FEAS students (mean rank = 51.83), U = 544, z = -5.135, p = .000.

To analyze differences in attitude between grade levels, Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results are presented in Table 7.

Table 7

Mann-Whitney U Test for Grade Levels

Grade level

N

Mean Rank

Sum of Ranks

U

p

Senior

304

179.60

54598

3922

.000

Graduated

40

118.55

4742

A Mann-Whitney U test was run to determine if there were differences in attitude score between seniors and graduated students. Distributions of the attitude scores for senior and graduated students were not similar, as assessed by visual inspection. Attitude scores for senior students (mean rank = 179.60) were statistically significantly higher than for graduated students (mean rank = 118.55), U = 3922, z = -3.654, p = .000.

Table 3 provides the correlation coefficients between the attitude scores and academic success indicators: midterm- final marks on IPM. All correlation coefficients were below .90, indicating that multicollinearity was not present (Tabachnick, B., and Fiddell, L. 2013).

Table 8

Spearman Correlations for Attitude and Academic Success

Attitude

Midterm

Midterm

.297*

Final

.026

.422*

A Spearman's rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between attitude and academic success indicators in IPM course appliers. Preliminary analysis showed the relationship to be monotonic, as assessed by visual inspection of a scatterplot. There was a small positive correlation between attitude and midterm exam mark, rs= .297, p < .0005.

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Conclusion and Discussion

According to findings of the study, it is found that the PFSs have a moderate attitude score distribution as it stated in Doğan & Kara (2015) on the contrary with a lot of studies (Altınkurt, Yılmaz & Erol, 2014; Gülşen & Seyratlı,2014; İlğan, Sevinç & Arı, 2013; Kartal & Afacan, 2012; Kontaş & Demir, 2015; Kutluca, Birgin & Çatlıoğlu, 2007). Considering this result, IPM is not able to reach enough its affective domain goals. According to these findings, the content of IPM course could be reduced or its class hours could be increased. Also, IPM could be held in more practical format to be seen more useful and help them be able to use IPM in their teaching process.

It can be inferred from the answers, PFS fear from the IPM course. This result is parallel with Dündar & Karaca (2013). This fear may arouse from future anxiety as noted in Doğan & Çoban (2009).

The result on gender difference show that male’s attitude is more positive than female’s as it found in Eraslan & Çakıcı (2011); Köksalan, İlter & Görmez (2010); Süral (2014). But this result disagrees with other studies as arguing males’ attitude is more than males’ (Erdem & Anılan (2000); Ekiz, 2006; Kiraz, Demir, Aksu, Daloğlu ve Yıldırım, 2010; Pehlivan, 2008; Doğan & Çoban, 2009; Gelişli, 2009) and there is no difference between genders (Polat, 2013; İlğan, Sevinç & Arı, 2013; Bulut & Doğar, 2006; Yaşar-Ekici, 2014; Tanrıöğen, 1997; Başbay, Ünver & Bümen, 2009; Erden, 1995; Yüksel, 2004; Gürbüz & Kışoğlu, 2007; Sayın, 2005; Şimşek, 2005; Tanel, Kaya & Tanel, 2007).

ALES score preference diverse the attitude level as it noted in Bağçeci, et al. (2015), Süral & Sarıtaş (2015) and Süral (2015). This is because IPM is a verbal course that the verbal PFSs’ attitude is the highest of all. But this result is not compatible with the studies that assert there was no difference stem from faculties (Demircioğlu & Özdemir, 2014; Terzi & Tezci, 2007).

Senior graders’ attitude is higher than graduated PFSs. This could be explained by the fact that senior graders’ continuing studentship. The graduated PFSs should be focused on conversation than listening to the lecturer speech. So, lecturers could reserve more time for the conversation to raise graduated PFSs’ attitude toward IPM, during classes.

According to the findings, the faculty is not statistically significant about the attitude toward IPM course. This result disagrees with the results of Eraslan & Çakıcı (2011), Gelişli (2009), İlğan, Sevinç & Arı (2013), Saracaloğlu et al. (2004), Kaya & Büyükkasap (2005) and Tezcan & Afacan (2012); and agree with Başbay, Ünver & Bümen (2009), Demircioğlu & Özdemir (2014) & Polat (2013).

The correlation between academic success and attitude toward IPM is not clear enough. According to results, while the mid-term exam scores are correlated with

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attitude scores, final exam scores is not. In this case, it can be interpreted as, there is no relation between academic success and IPM course attitude.

The studies which will be carried out on attitudes toward IPM course should be planned in order to find out some psychological characteristics such as anxiety, academic self-esteem and quantitative-qualitative abilities not according demographical properties.

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